Memorializing the Civil War Around America

Mapping History

All documents and text associated with this activity are printed below, followed by a worksheet for student responses.

Introduction

You will see photographs of statues, monuments, and memorials dedicated to Civil War soldiers, generals, and political leaders around the United States. Place each one in the location where it was erected. Click on the orange "open in new window" icon to see it more closely and find more information. The first four statues have been placed for you.

Make a multi-column chart and note details about each statue. Your columns could include: Subject Matter, Union or Confederacy, Location (City, State and Specific Area), Connection between Monument and Location, Unique Features, etc. 

As you work, think about how the North and South memorialized the Union and Confederacy's leaders and soldiers in the decades following the Civil War. Look for similarities and differences between the statues. What are some recurring themes? What are some unique monuments? Which statues, monuments, and memorials do you think are most controversial and why?


Name:
Class:

Worksheet

Memorializing the Civil War Around America

Mapping History

Examine the documents and text included in this activity. Consider how each document or piece of text relates to the image shown below. Write the corresponding document or text number on the image where you think it belongs. (Some may be placed for you already.) Write your conclusion response in the space provided.

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Michigan Soldiers` and Sailors` Monument, Detroit, MI

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Soldier`s Monument, Denver, CO

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Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument, Baltimore, MD

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Confederate Soldiers Monument, Little Rock, AR

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Indiana State Soldiers and Sailors Monument, Indianapolis, IN

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Minnesota Monument, Little Rock, AR

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Robert Edward Lee Sculpture, Charlottesville, VA

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Shaw Memorial, Boston Common, Boston, MA

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Union/Confederate Veteran`s Monument, Morgantown, KY

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Confederate Soldier Memorial, Columbus, OH

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Jefferson Davis Statue, Montgomery, AL

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Robert E. Lee Monument, New Orleans, LA

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General Ulysses S. Grant, Philadelphia, PA

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Sherman Equestrian Statue, Grand Army Plaza, New York City

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Missouri Memorial, Vicksburg, MS

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"Stonewall" Jackson Statue at Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA

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Rhode Island State Memorial, Vicksburg, MS

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Lincoln Monument, Lincoln, NE

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Albert Pike Memorial, Washington, DC

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Nathan Bedford Forrest Monument, Memphis, TN

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Hot Springs Confederate Monument, Hot Springs, AR

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Conclusion

Memorializing the Civil War Around America

Mapping History

  • Should the statues to Confederate leaders and soldiers be removed? Why or why not?
    • Do you think that all the Confederate statues should remain? That all the Confederate statues should be removed? Or should it be a case-by-case situation?
    • Who should make the decision for statues to remain or be removed? How should these decisions be made?
    • Is there a difference between statues of specific Confederate military and civilian leaders (such as Robert E. Lee) and those made to Confederate soldiers from that area (such as soldiers from Arkansas)? Why or why not?
    • Should the specific location of a statue impact the decision to keep or remove it?
      • Is there a difference between having statues in public spaces (like court houses and state capitols) and ones that are in private cemeteries or on Civil War battlefield sites? Why or why not?
 


Your Response




Document

'Stonewall' Jackson Statue at Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA

1912 (Photograph 1935)

Original caption: "Stonewall Jackson Statue at Virginia Military Institute on U.S. 11 at Lexington, Virginia. J. K. Hillers."

Following a series of national protests against police brutality and racism in policing in the summer of 2020, statues of Confederate generals throughout the United States were damaged or destroyed by protesters or removed by local officials.  Though the Virginia Military Institute had long avoided calls to remove the statue, allegations of racial hostility and cultural insensitivity at the military college caused officials to rethink their positions.  On December 7, 2020, the Stonewall Jackson statue was removed from VMI with plans to relocate to a local museum and battlefield site.
This primary source comes from the Records of the Bureau of Public Roads.
National Archives Identifier: 135804650
Full Citation: 'Stonewall' Jackson Statue at Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA; 1912 (Photograph 1935); States - Virginia (continued); Historical Photograph Files, 1896 - 1963; Records of the Bureau of Public Roads, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://docsteach.org/documents/document/stonewall-jackson-statue-at-virginia-military-institute, June 15, 2024]


'Stonewall' Jackson Statue at Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA

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Albert Pike Memorial, Washington, DC

1901 (photo taken 1976)

The Albert Pike Memorial by Gaetano Trentanove was erected in Washington, DC, in 1901. In this bronze pedestrian statue, General Pike is shown in civilian dress and presented as a masonic leader rather than a militaryman. Pike stands 11 feet tall upon a high granite pedestal. Below his feet, about half way down the west face of the pedestal, sitting on a ledge is the allegorical Goddess of Masonry, holding the banner of the Scottish Rite. Pike holds a book in his left hand.

Pike was the only Confederate general to be so honored in Washington, DC. The statue stirred controversy since it was first installed. In 2020, protestors pulled down the Pike statue and set it on fire. The National Park Service later removed the statue, leaving the pedestal in place.

This photo and description are part of materials from the "Civil War Monuments in Washington, DC" registration form in the National Register of Historic Places.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 117692047
Full Citation: Albert Pike Memorial, Washington, DC; 1901 (photo taken 1976); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Washington, DC; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://docsteach.org/documents/document/albert-pike-memorial, June 15, 2024]


Albert Pike Memorial, Washington, DC

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Confederate Soldier Memorial, Columbus, OH

1902 (Photograph 1973)

Confederate Soldier Memorial at Camp Chase in Columbus, Ohio was dedicated in 1902. 

Camp Chase was a way station for immediate repatriation of captured Confederate soldiers.  However, after the prisoner exchange agreement between the North and South was ended in July 1863, Camp Chase began to be a permanent prison camp for military and political prisoners loyal to the Confederacy.  By the end of the war, nearly 26,000 Confederate soldiers were housed in a prison designed for 8,000 men.  Punitive practices (such as reduced rations) in retaliation for mistreatment of Union captives in Confederate prisons led to many soldiers suffering from malnutrition.  Many died from smallpox, typhoid fever, pneumonia, and exposure to the elements.  In all, 2,260 soldiers died at Camp Chase.  

A cemetery, established in 1863, is surrounded by a stone wall built in 1921.  Within it are enclosed the graves of 2,199 Confederate soldiers who died while prisoners of war. A memorial arch of granite blocks, unveiled in 1902, spans a large boulder. Above the arch rests a bronze statue of a Confederate soldier facing south, and on the keystone of the arch is the inscription— AMERICANS.  On the boulder is engraved "2260 Confederate Soldiers of the War 1861-1865 Buried in this Enclosure."  

One of the few Confederate memorials in Ohio, the statue was toppled and vandalized in August 2017.  It was repaired and reinstalled in March 2019. 

The photos and description of Confederate Soldier Memorial in Columbus, Ohio are part of materials from the Camp Chase Site nomination form for the National Register of Historic Places.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 71988613
Full Citation: Confederate Soldier Memorial, Columbus, OH; 1902 (Photograph 1973); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Ohio; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://docsteach.org/documents/document/confederate-soldier-memorial-columbus-oh, June 15, 2024]


Confederate Soldier Memorial, Columbus, OH

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Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument, Baltimore, MD

1903 (Photograph Unknown)

The Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument by Frederick Ruckstull was unveiled in Baltimore, Maryland in 1903.

This sculpture depicts an allegorical angel figure representing Glory and a dying Confederate soldier. The dying soldier holds a battle flag, while the angel holds a laurel crown. Below the sculpture is inscribed in Latin "Gloria Victis," or "Glory to the Vanquished."  

In 2015, the statue was vandalized following the Charleston church shooting.  In August 2017, following the unrest in Charlottesville, VA as part of the Unite the Right rally, the statue was vandalized with red paint.  The Baltimore City Council voted to remove all Confederate monuments on August 14, 2017.
This primary source comes from the Records of the Commission of Fine Arts.
National Archives Identifier: 57358636
Full Citation: Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument, Baltimore, MD; 1903 (Photograph Unknown); Statues, Monuments and Memorials in U.S.: Arranged alphabetically by name - 66G19A (letter 'A') through 66G19Y (letter 'Y'); General Photographic File of the Commission of Fine Arts, ca. 1910 - 1950; Records of the Commission of Fine Arts, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://docsteach.org/documents/document/confederate-soldiers-and-sailors-monument-baltimore-md, June 15, 2024]


Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument, Baltimore, MD

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Document

Confederate Soldiers Monument, Little Rock, AR

1905 (Photographs 1995)

The Confederate Soldiers Monument (also known as "Defense of the Flag" or the Arkansas Sons of the Confederacy Memorial) by F. W. Ruckstuhl was unveiled on the State Capitol grounds in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1905.  

The monument includes a 12 foot tall bronze sculpture of an angelic female figure at the top and a 8 foot tall soldier below. The angel stands barefooted on a sphere. Her right arm is raised up and holds a wreath of victory, while her left hand is pointing down and holds atrumpet. She is wearing a victory wreath on her head and a long flowing robe on her body. The soldier is dressed in a Confederate uniform and carries a  flagpole and flag in both hands. The pole is broken with the flag curled around it and the jagged edge exposed downward. He is standing in front of a broken wagon wheel.

The front of the base contains the inscription "CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS OF ARKANSAS 1861 - 1865."  The right side of the base is inscribed, "Our furled banner wreathed with glory and though conquered we adore it.  Weep for those who fell before it, pardon those who trail and tore it." On the left side of the base is inscribed, "Arkansas remembers the faithfulness of her sons and commends their example to future generations."

In June 2020, following a series of national protests against police brutality and racism in policing, a petition to remove Confederate statues from the Arkansas State Capitol grounds to a more appropriate location was posted to Change.org. In August 2020, barriers were added around the Confederate Soldiers Monument and the Monument to Confederate Women to protect them after threats of vandalism and destruction were shared on social media. According to Arkansas state law, the legislature must approve removal of monuments from the Capitol grounds.  As of January 2021, the Confederate statues remain in place near the Arkansas State Capitol. 

This photo and description of the Confederate Soldiers Monument in Little Rock, AR are part of materials from its Nomination form for the National Register of Historic Places.
 
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 26140490
Full Citation: Confederate Soldiers Monument, Little Rock, AR; 1905 (Photographs 1995); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Arkansas; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://docsteach.org/documents/document/confederate-soldiers-monument-little-rock-ar, June 15, 2024]


Confederate Soldiers Monument, Little Rock, AR

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General Ulysses S. Grant, Philadelphia, PA

1898 (Photograph Unknown)

The General Ulysses S. Grant by Daniel Chester French was unveiled in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1898.
This primary source comes from the Records of the Commission of Fine Arts.
National Archives Identifier: 57358636
Full Citation: General Ulysses S. Grant, Philadelphia, PA; 1898 (Photograph Unknown); Statues, Monuments and Memorials in U.S.: Arranged alphabetically by name - 66G19A (letter 'A') through 66G19Y (letter 'Y'); General Photographic File of the Commission of Fine Arts, ca. 1910 - 1950; Records of the Commission of Fine Arts, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://docsteach.org/documents/document/general-ulysses-s-grant-philadelphia-pa, June 15, 2024]


General Ulysses S. Grant, Philadelphia, PA

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Document

Hot Springs Confederate Monument, Hot Springs, AR

1934 (Photographs 1995)

The Hot Springs Confederate Monument by McNeel Marble Co. was unveiled in Hot Springs, Arkansas in 1934.  

The monument depicts a standing Confederate soldier in full attire grasping a rifle barrel.  Inscribed in the north face of the base is "1861-1865 Confederate Soldiers" and a Confederate flag. On the south side is the inscription "Erected in loving memory by the Hot Springs Chapter United Daughters of the Confederacy."

This photo and description of the Hot Springs Confederate Monument in Hot Springs, AR are part of materials from its Nomination form for the National Register of Historic Places.
 
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 26139639
Full Citation: Hot Springs Confederate Monument, Hot Springs, AR; 1934 (Photographs 1995); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Arkansas; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://docsteach.org/documents/document/hot-springs-confederate-monument-hot-springs-ar, June 15, 2024]


Hot Springs Confederate Monument, Hot Springs, AR

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Indiana State Soldiers and Sailors Monument, Indianapolis, IN

1902 (Photographs 1973)

The Indiana State Soldiers and Sailors Monument by Bruno Schmitz (architect), Frederick Baumann (deputy architect), George Brewster and Rudolf Schwartz (sculptors) were completed in 1902 in Indianapolis, Indiana.    

Rising a total of 285 feet, the central shaft is topped by a 30 foot bronze statue of Victory.  Surrounding the pedestal on the east and west sides  are groups of sculptured figures representing War and Peace.  On the north and south sides of the pedestal are guarded by sculptures representing Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery, and a Sailor. Located at the center of the city, the monument has become a focal point and symbol of Indianapolis.

The photos and description of the Indiana State Soldiers and Sailors Monument in Indianapolis, IN are part of materials from its registration form for the National Register of Historic Places.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 132004062
Full Citation: Indiana State Soldiers and Sailors Monument, Indianapolis, IN; 1902 (Photographs 1973) ; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Indiana; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://docsteach.org/documents/document/indiana-soldiers-and-sailors-monument-indianapolis-in, June 15, 2024]


Indiana State Soldiers and Sailors Monument, Indianapolis, IN

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Indiana State Soldiers and Sailors Monument, Indianapolis, IN

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Jefferson Davis Statue, Montgomery, AL

1940 (Photograph 1944)

This primary source comes from the Records of the Bureau of Public Roads.
National Archives Identifier: 135801814
Full Citation: Jefferson Davis Statue, Montgomery, AL; 1940 (Photograph 1944); States - Alabama; Historical Photograph Files, 1896 - 1963; Records of the Bureau of Public Roads, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://docsteach.org/documents/document/jefferson-davis-statue-montgomery-alabama, June 15, 2024]


Jefferson Davis Statue, Montgomery, AL

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Document

Lincoln Monument, Lincoln, NE

1912 (photographs 1970)

Located in Lincoln, Nebraska, Lincoln Monument (also known as Standing Lincoln) by sculptor Daniel Chester French and architect Henry Bacon is located on the grounds of the Nebraska State Capitol.  The monument consists of a bronze statue of Abraham Lincoln on a granite pedestal and includes a granite backdrop on which the Gettysburg Address is engraved. The granite pedestal and backdrop were designed by Bacon, while the plaster model for the bronze casting is the work of French.

Shortly after finishing this project, Henry Bacon and Daniel Chester French would colloborate on the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, DC.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service, 1785 - 2006.
Full Citation: Lincoln Monument, Lincoln, NE; 1912 (photographs 1970); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Nebraska; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records; Records of the National Park Service, 1785 - 2006, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://docsteach.org/documents/document/lincoln-monument-lincoln-ne, June 15, 2024]


Lincoln Monument, Lincoln, NE

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Lincoln Monument, Lincoln, NE

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Document

Michigan Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, Detroit, MI

1872 (Photographs 1984)

The Michigan Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument by Randolph Rogers (sculptor) and Alexander Chapoton (contractor) was unveiled in 1872 in Detroit, Michigan.   

Standing at the intersection of the five main streets of Downtown Detroit, the Michigan Soldier's and Sailor's Monument stands fifty-six feet high in granite and includes a series of bronze sculpted figures representing different figures.

Standing on the lower level are figures representing the Navy and the Infantry, Cavalry and Artillery branches of the Army.  Between these statues are bas-relief medallions of important historical figures of the Civil War--Abraham Lincoln, David Farragut, Ulysses S. Grant, and William Tecumseh Sherman. Seated on a level above are female allegorical figures representing Victory, History, Emancipation and Union. At the top of the central shaft is an elevent foot bronze statue of a female representation of Michigan. 

The photos and description of the Michigan Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument in Detroit, MI are part of materials from its registration form for the National Register of Historic Places.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 25341172
Full Citation: Michigan Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, Detroit, MI; 1872 (Photographs 1984); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Michigan; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://docsteach.org/documents/document/michigan-soldiers-and-sailors-monument-detroit-mi, June 15, 2024]


Michigan Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, Detroit, MI

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Minnesota Monument, Little Rock, AR

1916 (Photographs 1995)

The Minnesota Monument by John K. Daniels was unveiled in Little Rock, AR in 1916. 

In 1913, the Minnesota state legislature established the Minnesota Monument Commission to recommend the construction of memorials honoring Minnesota's Civil War soldiers buried in national cemeteries throughout the South.  Little Rock, Arkansas's Minnesota Monument, also called "Taps," was unveiled on September 22,1916, in the Little Rock National Cemetery. The cemetery contains almost 7,000 Union graves, including 36 of Minnesota soldiers.  The Minnesota Monument is the only one in Arkansas whose commission came from an outside state government and one of only three known monuments in the state that acknowledges Union forces.

This photo and description of the Minnesota Monument in Little Rock, AR are part of materials from its Nomination form for the National Register of Historic Places.
 
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 26140494
Full Citation: Minnesota Monument, Little Rock, AR; 1916 (Photographs 1995); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Arkansas; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://docsteach.org/documents/document/minnesota-monument-little-rock-ar, June 15, 2024]


Minnesota Monument, Little Rock, AR

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Document

Missouri Memorial, Vicksburg, MS

1914 (Photograph 1976)

The Missouri Memorial by A.J. Martin (sculptor) and Hellmuth and Hellmuth (architects) was erected in Vicksburg, MS in 1914. 

The monument consists of a 42 feet tall pylon of MIssouri Red Granite with a bronze statue and two bronze reliefs on panels.  The height represents the 27 Union and 15 Confederate units involved in Vicksburg. At the time of its construction, this was the only monument in the park which was dedicated to the troops that fought on both sides of the conflict from the same state.

The bronze statue, symbolic of the "Spirit of the Republic" is mounted on the front of a Roman galley ship. One one side of the statue, is a large bronze panel representing the Union army in attack while the other displays the Confederate army in defense.  

The photos and description of the Missouri Memorial in Vicksburg, MS are part of materials from the Vicksburg National Military Park registration form for the National Register of Historic Places.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 73892179
Full Citation: Missouri Memorial, Vicksburg, MS; 1914 (Photograph 1976); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Mississippi; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://docsteach.org/documents/document/missouri-memorial-vicksburg-ms, June 15, 2024]


Missouri Memorial, Vicksburg, MS

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Nathan Bedford Forrest Monument, Memphis, TN

1905 (photographs 2008)

This statue of Nathan Bedford Forrest by Charles Henry Niehaus was unveiled in 1905 in Memphis, Tennessee. The bronze equestrian statue depicts the Confederate General and Grand Wizard of the KKK looking out into the distance aboard his horse.

Following an earlier attempt to remove the statue in 2015, the Memphis City Council passed an ordinance to remove Confederate Statues from public parks. After selling the park (which had previously been renamed from Forrest Park to Health Sciences Park), the statue was removed on December 20, 2017.

This photo and description of the Nathan Bedford Forrest Monument in Memphis, Tennessee are part of materials from the Forrest Park Historic District registration form for the National Register of Historic Places.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service, 1785 - 2006.
National Archives Identifier: 135819772
Full Citation: Nathan Bedford Forrest Monument, Memphis, TN; 1905 (photographs 2008); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Tennessee; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records; Records of the National Park Service, 1785 - 2006, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://docsteach.org/documents/document/nathan-bedford-forrest-monument-memphis-tn, June 15, 2024]


Nathan Bedford Forrest Monument, Memphis, TN

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Rhode Island State Memorial, Vicksburg, MS

1908 (Photograph 1976)

The Rhode Island State Memorial (also known as "The Flag") by F. Edwin Elwell was erected in Vicksburg, MS in 1908. 

The figure on the monument represents a lone soldier who has just picked up the fallen flag and is carrying it forward. He is holding the tattered flag high in his right hand, his rifle on the other. Bronze statue mounted on a granite pedestal from Westerly, Rhode Island.  Inscribed on the pedestal is "Rhode Island, 7th Infantry. Col. Zenas R. Bliss. 1st Brig. 2nd Div. 9th Corps."

The photos and description of the Rhode Island State Memorial in Vicksburg, MS are part of materials from the Vicksburg National Military Park registration form for the National Register of Historic Places.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 73892179
Full Citation: Rhode Island State Memorial, Vicksburg, MS; 1908 (Photograph 1976); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Mississippi; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://docsteach.org/documents/document/rhode-island-state-memorial-vicksburg-ms, June 15, 2024]


Rhode Island State Memorial, Vicksburg, MS

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Robert E. Lee Monument, New Orleans, LA

1884 (photographs 1990)

This monument of Robert E. Lee, by Alexander Doyle (sculptor) and John Roy (column), was dedicated in 1884 in New Orleans, LA. A 16 foot tall bronze statue of Robert E. Lee dressed in military uniform stands atop a 60 foot marble Doric column.  

In 2015, the New Orleans City Council voted to relocate the monument, along with three other statues associated with the Confederacy. Lawsuits were filed opposing the removal, but in 2017 the United States Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals held that the City of New Orleans could proceed. The statue was removed on May 19, 2017.

These photos and description are part of materials from the registration of Robert E. Lee Monument in New Orleans, LA  in the National Register of Historic Places.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 73974298
Full Citation: Robert E. Lee Monument, New Orleans, LA; 1884 (photographs 1990); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Louisiana; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://docsteach.org/documents/document/robert-e-lee-monument-new-orleans-la, June 15, 2024]


Robert E. Lee Monument, New Orleans, LA

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Robert Edward Lee Sculpture, Charlottesville, VA

1924 (photos taken 1995)

This sculpture of Robert E. Lee, by Henry Shrady and Leo Lentelli, was erected in 1924 in Charlottesville, Virginia. The equestrian statue depicts Confederate General Robert E. Lee aboard his horse, Traveller. It was part of a series of sculptures by Members of the National Sculpture Society donated by Paul Goodloe McIntire to the city of Charlottesville, Virginia, and the University of Virginia during the late City Beautiful movement from 1919-1924.

In 2017, Charlottesville's City Council voted to remove the Lee statue. Lawsuits were filed in response, to keep the statue standing. The controversy surrounding the monument gained national attention, and in August 2017, protesters held the Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville that resulted in violent clashes with counter-protestors and one death. Following several additional years of court battles and a new legal removal process, the statue of Robert E. Lee was removed on July 10, 2021. It was removed on the same day as nearby statues of Stonewall Jackson and Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. A statue of George Rogers Clark located on the University of Virginia campus was removed the following day. 

These photos are part of materials from the sculpture's registration in the National Register of Historic Places.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 41678617
Full Citation: Robert Edward Lee Sculpture, Charlottesville, VA; 1924 (photos taken 1995); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Virginia; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://docsteach.org/documents/document/robert-e-lee-sculpture-charlottesville-va, June 15, 2024]


Robert Edward Lee Sculpture, Charlottesville, VA

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Shaw Memorial, Boston Common, Boston, MA

1897 (photo taken 1890-1935)

Unveiled in 1897 in Boston Common, the Robert Gould Shaw Memorial by Augustus Saint-Gaudens commemorates the colonel of the Massachusetts 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment from the Civil War. 

The 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment was one of the most celebrated regiments of black soldiers that fought in the Civil War. Known simply as "the 54th," this regiment became famous after the heroic, but ill-fated, assault on Fort Wagner, South Carolina. Leading the direct assault under heavy fire, the 54th suffered enormous casualties before being forced to withdraw. The courage and sacrifice of the 54th helped to dispel doubt within the Union Army about the fighting ability of black soldiers.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 155823647
Full Citation: Shaw Memorial, Boston Common, Boston, MA; 1897 (photo taken 1890-1935); Landmarks of Boston; Henry Peabody Collection, 1959 - 1960; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://docsteach.org/documents/document/shaw-memorial-boston, June 15, 2024]


Shaw Memorial, Boston Common, Boston, MA

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Sherman Equestrian Statue, Grand Army Plaza, New York City

1903 (Photo taken 1969)

This William Tecumseh Sherman statue located in Grand Army Plaza in New York City, NY is considered to be one of the finest works by renowned sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens.  The General, preceded by Winged Victory (or Nike) on foot, sits on his horse, the reins in one hand, his hat in the other and his cape flutters behind. Victory strides ahead holding a palm branch in her hand and wears a billowing Greek peplos.

This photo and description are part of materials from the Plaza Hotel, New York, NY registration in the National Register of Historic Places.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 75319827
Full Citation: Sherman Equestrian Statue, Grand Army Plaza, New York City; 1903 (Photo taken 1969); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: New York; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://docsteach.org/documents/document/sherman-equestrian-statue-grand-army-plaza-new-york-city, June 15, 2024]


Sherman Equestrian Statue, Grand Army Plaza, New York City

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Soldier's Monument, Denver, CO

1909

The Soldier's Monument by John D. Howland and J. Otto Schweizer was dedicated in 1909 in Denver, Colorado.  The monument includes a bronze statue of a Union soldier on top of a stone base.  In the base are facts and dates about Colorado territory and statehood and details related to the role played by Colorado soldiers during the Civil War.  Names and dates of Colorado soldiers who died in the Civil War are engraved on plaques. 

In 1999, Colorado lawmakers added a plaque that detailed the role of Colorado soldiers in the Sand Creek Massacre of hundreds of Native Americans.  On June 25, 2020, during a series of national protests against police brutality and racism in policing, the Soldier's Monument was vandalized and its statue was toppled by protesters. In November 2020, state lawmakers decided to replace the monument with one honoring the Native American victims of the Sand Creek massacre.

The photos and description of the Soldier's Monument in Denver, CO are part of materials from Civic Center Historic District registration form for the National Register of Historic Places.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 84129195
Full Citation: Soldier's Monument, Denver, CO; 1909; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Colorado; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://docsteach.org/documents/document/soldiers-monument-denver-co, June 15, 2024]


Soldier's Monument, Denver, CO

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Union/Confederate Veteran's Monument, Morgantown, KY

1907 (Photograph 1997)

This Union/Confederate Veteran's Monument by was unveiled in Morganville, Kentucky in 1907. 

Standing 18 feet, this zinc monument depicts a Union Soldier with a kepi cap, a winter coat, and a rifile atop a pedestal.  Just below the soldier on the pedestal on the face of the monument is an inscribed plaque that reads; “This monument erected by the citizens of Morgantown and vicinity - May, 1907.”

On the other three sides of the monument are raised faces of Abraham Lincoln, U. S. Grant and Joseph Wheeler. Lower on the base are inscribed numerous names of both Union and Confederate veterans from Butler County. This is one of only two monuments in Kentucky created to honor soldiers on both sides.   An inscription on the monument read “One country, One Flag.” 

This photo and description of the Union/Confederate Veteran's Monument Morgantown, KY are part of materials from the its nomination form for the National Register of Historic Places.
This primary source comes from the Records of the National Park Service.
National Archives Identifier: 123845991
Full Citation: Union/Confederate Veteran's Monument, Morgantown, KY; 1907 (Photograph 1997); National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records: Kentucky; National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmarks Program Records, 2013 - 2017; Records of the National Park Service, ; National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD. [Online Version, https://docsteach.org/documents/document/union-confederate-veterans-monument-morgantown-ky, June 15, 2024]


Union/Confederate Veteran's Monument, Morgantown, KY

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